Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 15 calls for all to protect, restore and promote the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss. In line with this call, LES has established world class ecosystems through the restoration of Bamburi Cement coral limestone quarries.
From onset of rehabilitation in 1971, over 452 species of trees, shrubs and lianas have been introduced into the rehabilitated quarries. Over 195 of these species are listed on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List including those designated as Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened.
Many of the indigenous species are now reproducing in the restored ecosystems and forming populations that positively impact on ecosystems services. Food plants as well as flowering plants are introduced to attract and sustain the rich biodiversity, including butterflies and birds. More than 292 species of birds have been recorded in the emergent ecosystems.
Eleven (11) of the bird species are listed as either Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened and some are seasonal or occasional visitors to the sites. To date, 35 mammal species have been recorded, some of which are listed as Vulnerable or Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List and 14-amphibian species. In addition, over 112 species of butterflies and 18 species of dragonflies reside in the ecosystems.