Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 15 calls for all to protect, restore and promote the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss. In line with this call, LES has established world class ecosystems through the restoration of Bamburi Cement coral limestone quarries.
Between 1971 and 2017, more than 400 species of indigenous trees, shrubs and lianas have been introduced into the rehabilitated quarries. 61 of these species are listed on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List while 21 species are designated as critical, endangered or vulnerable. Many of the indigenous species are now reproducing in the restored ecosystems and forming populations that positively impact on ecosystems services. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species.
Food plants as well as flowering plants have also been introduced to attract and sustain the rich biodiversity, including butterflies and birds. More than 180 species of birds have been recorded in the rehabilitated areas. Two of the bird species are listed as endangered and both are seasonal or occasional visitors to the sites. In addition, we have over 80 species of butterflies and 17 species of dragonflies.